Einadia hastata

A good bush regenerator will pull out less than 50% of native plant species in their first year. This was unfortunately true and how I learnt about Einadia hastata (commonly known as Berry Saltbush). Due to this species growth form and habit, this species can look out of place in native sandstone communities and can look ‘weedy’. Reasons I draw your attention to this species is the fact it provides a range of uses and can reconnect your garden back to nature.

Species Description

Einadia hastata is a low evergreen shrubby perennial plant which is found in heavy soils widespread across New South Wales (as well as Qld and VIC) in coastal, tableland and inland environments.


Image labelled for reuse on Google Images. Author by Peter Woodard

Uses of Einadia hastata

As suggested by its common name, Einadia hastata leaves are quite salty. Leaves are edible after boiling to remove it’s excess salt. Small quantities are nice in garden salads and stir-fry’s. It’s small red fruits are also edible but tend to have a bitter taste. But most of all this species encourages Chequered Blue (Theclinesthes serpentatus) butterflies into your garden. In the butterflies larval stage, this plant provides an essential source of food and you will start to see them forage in your garden on the ground layer.

I hope to provide more plant species on My Nature Diaries which can be used to entice more butterfly species into your garden.

For more information see:

Einadia hastata (CHENOPODIACEAE) Berry Saltbush by © Save Our Waterways Now

The Complete Field Guide to Butterflies of Australia by Michael Braby.



Living with a Menagerie

I am such a lucky person to have been brought up living alongside a creek and bushland. As a result, over the years I have seen many different species of wildlife. So I have come up with a list of all wildlife I’ve had in my backyard. My mum calls it our menagerie.


Grey-headed Flying Fox

Long-nosed Bandicoot

Brush-tail Possum

Ring-tail Possum

Common Brown Microbat






Dollar Bird

Channel-billed Cuckoo

Satin Bower Bird

Whiptail Bird

Bell Miner

Pacific Buzzard


Australasian Darter

Cat Bird



Sacred Kingfisher

Azua Kingfisher

Pied Cormerant

Pacific Black Duck


Australian Wood Duck

White Headed Egret

Giant White Egret

Eastern Rosella

Crimson Rosela

Rainbow Lorkieet

Brush Turkey


Willy Wag Tail

Butcher Bird

Nosiy Miner

Australian Raven



Eastern Water Dragon

Eastern Water Skink

Laced Monitor

Diamond Python

Green Tree Snake

Bleating Tree Frog

Common Eastern Toadlet


Spotted Sun Orchid

Thelymira ixioides, commonly named Spotted Sun Orchid, is a beautiful mauve/purple orchid which you may see growing in Spring and Summer. Derivation of its name, Thelymitra…From Greek thelys, meaning female and mitra, a headdress, referring to the appearance of the plumed column (the fused stamens, styles and stigma), and ixioides…similar to the genus Ixia.


Photo By Lisa Jones

This species is widespread inhabiting temperate heaths and wet sclerophyll forests along the coast. This is a protected species under the Department of Environment and Hertiage NSW belonging to the Orchidaceae family.

The Spotted Sun Orchid is a small perennial herbstanding up to 60 cm tall. Like most orchids, this species dies back to an underground tuber after flowering season. To see record locations recorded for this species, see Atlas of Living Australia on: . If your unsure if you have found the spotted sun orchid, we recommend using app PlantSnap which is now identifying native plants of Australia.

For further reading about this species, we recommend the following websites:

Australians Native Plant Society (Australia)



Stop Eating the Wrong Berries!!

As a bush regenerator, I can’t help but observe the behaviour of native birds. Because of my work, I am able to visit different sites which contain different species of plants and birds. Until recently, I witnessed a horrific sight. Too many native birds eating the wrong berries!! Within one week I saw both a Welcome Swallow (Hirundo neoxena) eating ripe berries off Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) and a Crimson Rosella (Platycercus elegans) eating the fruits of Small-leaf privet (Ligustrum sinense). It’s disgusting! What was more worse was seeing them drop excrement’s across the site. This frustration has now lead me to research and understand ‘Complex Bird-Weed Relationships’.

Images labelled for reuse on Google Images. Authors by: Harald Hubich 2005 and Aviceda 2005.

There is a unique, cooperative relationship between various plants and birds. Some species of plants fully rely on birds for their seed dispersal and succession for future germination. In fact, many weed species depend on birds. This includes as mentioned above Blackberry Nightshade and Privet, as well as Ochna, Asparagus fern and various others.

Birds have a much higher metabolic rate and a much higher/constant body temperature (~42°C) than that of humans (~37°C). Therefore, for birds to maintain a constant body temperature they must forage and eat regularly in order for their metabolism to regulate their body temperature (as well as insulation from feathers). That makes them the prefect vector for scattering seeds. Just a little ‘did you know?’, birds have been recorded investing  between 32–50% of their time on eating over a course of a day. Humans on average will spend ~10% of their time eating. This means that birds are foraging and feeding up to 12 hours a day!

We will look into the complex bird-weed relationship between Pied Currawong (Strepera graculina) and Camphor laurel (Cinnamomum camphora).


Images labelled for reuse on Google Images. Authors by: Peter Woodard 2010 and Myk Dowling 2006.

Camphor laurel is a tall (up to 20 m) evergreen tree with a large, spreading canopy. It is a long-lived tree and has been recorded living older than 500 years (evident in China). Its’ fruits attract many animals including bats, birds, rodents and possums. What is so terrible about this particular tree in Australia is the fact it produces a large amount of seeds which have an in-built seed dormancy allowing it to wait for the right germination conditions (usually in the wet season). Mature camphor laurels have been recorded producing over 110,000 seeds per plant per year. That is an astonishing amount in comparison to our native tree species. Other negatives from Camphor laurel succession include is highly competitive nature towards other trees for space of occupation and nutrients, its ability to form monocultures and associations with other weeds, cause destabilisation of streambanks and steep slopes, and the fact it can be poisonous to some of our native fauna.

Now the Pied Currawong, it is notoriously known for their wide-ranging diet and contributing to the spread of many weed species. Pied Currawongs broad diet include insects, fruit and even vertebrates. Having a broad diet is a favourable adaption allowing the animal many options. When one resource is low, they can survive off their other preferred diets. For example, Pied Currawongs are known to eat more vertebrate prey during the spring breeding seasons (particularly ducklings and other fledging’s). During autumn and winter when vertebrate prey are not as abundant, Pied Currawongs will then transfer to berries and insects. This is coincidental as Camphor laurel fruits are widely abundant in autumn and winter.

Now that forms a question of who relies upon who? Will Camphor laurel continue to thrive without Pied Currawongs, or vice versa? Needless to say, through time, complex bird-weed relationships have formed. To better manage weeds of interest, we must first understand all complex built relationships among other fauna and flora.



Birds in Backyards 2017, Weeds. Available online at: [Accessed 23 August 2017].

Birds in Backyards 2017, Birds Behaving Badly – Pied Currawong. Available online at: [Accessed 01 September 2017].

Gosper C, R.,  2017, “Consequences of weed invasion and control on plant-bird interactions a”. Available online at: [Accessed 23 August 2017].

NSW WeedWise 2017, Camphor laurel (Cinnamomum camphora). Available online at:  [Accessed 23 August 2017].

The Conversation 2017, Stop the miners: you can help Australia’s birds by planting native gardens, Author: Kathryn Lambert. Available online at:  [Accessed 23 August 2017].

The Conversation 2017, Hold the spray: some garden weeds are helping native wildlife, Author: Kathryn Lambert. Available online at:  [Accessed 23 August 2017].

Why Eucalypts, Why!

“Is that Eucalyptus tereticornis?” – Me

“It’s hard to tell, they can hybridise” – Said by someone more experienced.

Just as I was getting used to the idea of identifying Eucalypt species by their shape of gumnut (fruit) and bark type, thrown into the barrel now is the fact that they can hybridise!!!

So how is it possible for Eucalypt species to hybridise? It is said for two species to hybridise, there first needs to be genetic compatibility. In technical terms this means both species must have the same numbers of chromosomes (genetic material). Additional factors that come into play is if the two separate species have similar (synchronous) flowering times and pollen vectors. Separate species that hybrid where one flowers outside the flowering times of the other is only created through human manipulation.

So what species in NSW hybridise?

After some research from various sources online, just some of the many hybrids that occur in NSW include Eucalyptus apiculata (E. burgessiana × E. stricta), Eucalyptus saligna × botryoides, and Eucalyptus patentinervis (E. robusta × E. tereticornis). There may also be hybridisations that have not been fully recorded, including Stringybark species.

Can you tell if a tree is a hybridised species?

This is a tricky question to answer. In most cases hybrids will confuse the person trying to ID them as they might appear intermediate in some features such as bark type or crown colour between the two parent species (EUCLID 2017), show features of both parents (e.g. E. botryoides and E. saligna situated in NSW, DEE 2017), show features of only one parent species (e.g. E. annuliformis endemic to Western Australia, EUCLID 2017) or not show any characteristic features of either parent species (e.g. E. drummondii native to southwest Western Australia, EUCLID 2017).

Let’s use this exercise to compare parent species and their characteristic feature to three well documented hybrid Eucalypt species.

Eucalyptus apiculata

E. apiculata is described as both rare and localised between Linden and Berrima of NSW typically found in mallee (multi-trunk) shrublands on sandy soils on ridge tops or escarpment landscapes (PlantNET). E. apiculata (leaves up to 0.7 cm wide) has linear leaves which can be distinguished from E. stricta (~ 1.6 cm wide) which has narrow-lanceolate leaves and also distinguished from E. burgessiana (leaves up to 2.5 cm wide) which has lanceolate leaves.

Comparing the fruits of parent species shows that E. apiculata resembles both  E. burgessiana and  E. stricta. E. stricta has globose, ovoid or urceolate shaped fruits (7-10 mm in diameter) while E. burgessiana has globose or urceolate shaped fruits (8-12 mm diam.). EUCLID (2017) describes E. apiculata fruits as pedicellate, cup-shaped, urceolate shaped fruits (6-10 mm diam.).

For further in depth comparsion, we recommend reading EUCLID webpage on Ecualyptus apiculata which can be found at:

E. a
Image by Warren Sheather, from APS – Armidale website.

Eucalyptus saligna × botryoides

E. saligna × botryoides, commonly known as Wollongong Woollybutt or Southern Blue Gum, is found on the south coast of NSW in the Illawara region, south of Sydney. This species is known to resemble its parent species, E. saligna based on physical attributes such as appearance and type of bark. For example E. saligna is known to be a part bark species of Eucalypt with a short fibrous stocking at the base versus E. botryoides known as a full bark species of Eucalypt with rough, red stained bark extending to all limbs of its branches. E. saligna × botryoides is also a part bark species of Eucalypt with grey smooth bark above its stocking, “sock” like E. saligna. Attributes that resemble E. botryoides includes shape of leaf, buds and fruits. More in-depth comparison can be seen in the positioning of stomata on the leaves.

For more information on  E. saligna × botryoides, see Wollongong’s Native Trees at:


Eucalyptus patentinervis

E. patentinervis, commonly known as Bastard Mahogany is known to occur where stands of both parent species are within close proximity to each other, particular transition zones. This union is particularly strange when E. tereticornis is known to occur in Cumberland Plain areas in grassy wooded alluvial flats where E. robusta tend to occur in Sandstone areas in floodplain forests. Comparison of bark types is also interesting to note. E. tereticornis has a smooth bark and E. robusta is a full bark species of Eucalypt. E. patentinervis is highly variable and has different attributes depending on location, geology and climate. Some stands of E. patentinervis are fully rough barked, while other have been recorded containing part bark with smooth branches. Consistency seems to be present in the shape of its fruits, leaves and colour of flowers.

Other descriptions of this species include white to pink flowers, flattened flower stems and venation of the leaves more closely resemble E. tereticornis. For images of E. patentinervis, see Northern Beaches Herbarium Gallery at:

Other species that E. robusta has been recorded hybridising with other species of Eucalypt include bangalay (E. botryoides), flooded gum (E. grandis), Tasmanian blue gum (E. globulus), woollybutt (E. longifolia) and Bancroft’s red gum (E. bancroftii).


All in all hybrids are quite unquie specimens and have unique origins to where, when and how they came into existence. Eucalypt hybrids continue to studied for progeny tests confirming their origin. Today hybrids are a debateable topic to whether they should be classed as a subspecies, a variety of a species, or its own independent species.

To see a full classification of the Eucalypts species (including Angophoras, Corymbia and Eucalyptus), see Nicolle D (2015) Classification of the Eucalypts (Angophora, Corymbia and Eucalyptus), Version 2, available online at:



Department of Environmental and Energy, 2017. National Vegetation Information System Taxonomic Review: 3.0 Results. Available online at: [Accessed 08 August 2017].

EUCLID 2017, Learn about eucalypts, Available online at: [Accessed 08 August 2017].

EUCLID 2017, Eucalyptus apiculata, Available online at: [Accessed 08 August 2017].

Gallery 2017. Eucalyptus robusta x tereticornis hybrid – Bastard Mahogany or E patentinervis , Northern Beaches Herbarium. Available online at: [Accessed 08 August 2017].

Lopez G, A., Potts B, M., and Tilyard P, A., 2000, ‘F1 hybrid inviability in Eucalyptus: the case of E. ovata × E. globulus’, Heredity, vol. 85, pg. 242–250. Available online at: [Accessed 08 August 2017].

National Register of Big Trees, 2017, Eucalyptus saligna × E. botryoides, Wollongong’s Native Trees, Available online at: [Accessed 08 August 2017].

PlantNET – FloraOnline 2017. Eucalyptus apiculata R.T.Baker & H.G.Sm. Available online at:  [Accessed 08 August 2017].

PlantNET – FloraOnline 2017. Eucalyptus saligna Sm. Available online at:  [Accessed 08 August 2017].

PlantNET – FloraOnline 2017. Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. Available online at:  [Accessed 08 August 2017].

PlantNET – FloraOnline 2017. Eucalyptus robusta Sm. Available online at: [Accessed 08 August 2017].

Australia’s Natural Stingose

As a bush regenerator, ant bites are sadly unavoidable. But nature has provided us the essentials for coping with these incidents. Aboriginal cultural knowledge and education from my peers have taught me the natural stingose – Bracken fern (Pteridium esculentum).

Interestingly, both the stalks and juvenile growths can be used to relieve pain. By chewing on the stalk (not eating the entire stalk of course!!) you will feel the immediate relief of its healing properties. If you are not comfortable with this approach, you can apply fresh new frond growths from P. esculentum to the swollen area for similar results.

BUT BE WARNED. There are two species of fern that look very similar if not properly identified. Bracken fern (P. esculentum) can be commonly mistaken for False Bracken fern (Calochlaena dubia, also known as Soft Bracken fern).

Let’s use this exercise to compare Bracken vs. False Bracken.

Bracken fern (Pteridium esculentum)

P. esculentum can be distinguished with its dark green, rough/stiff fronds versus C. dubia light green soft fronds. Another key feature between the species is that P. esculentum has opposite frond branch arrangement and that P. esculentum is typically found with a single stem (not aggregated together in clumps commonly seen in C. dubia at the base).

 Bracken FERN

Pteridium esculentum. Author by Lisa Jones.


False Bracken fern (Calochlaena dubia)

C. dubia can be distinguished by its soft, light green, alternating frond branch arrangement. This species is confined to sandstone communities while P. esculentum has been recorded on both shale derived geologies and sandstone communities. Another key distinguishable feature of C. dubia is that all segments are repeated until the apex (tip) of the frond end while P. esculentum has a long lobbed ‘finger’ at the apex of the end of every frond. Compare images above and below.


Calochlaena dubia. Author by Lisa Jones.



PlantNET – FloraOnline 2017. Pteridium esculentum (G.Forst.) Cockayne. Available online at: [Accessed 4 August 2017].

PlantNET – FloraOnline 2017. Calochlaena dubia (R.Br.) M.D.Turner & R.A.White in R.A.White & M.D.Turner. Available online at: [Accessed 4 August 2017].